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Pour une république souveraine laïque et sociale

Discussion Libre: le Référendum, arme de dissuasion massive contre les oligarchies

Par Mouvement « Laïcité et République Sociale » (LRS) , le 17 janvier 2019

Nous vous proposons de débattre de la question du Référendum d’Initiative Citoyenne (RIC) en publiant un court texte d’une association amie: « Laïcité et République Sociale » (LRS) 

La campagne actuelle pour le Référendum d’Initiative Citoyenne (RIC), mise en avant par le mouvement de révolte des « Gilets Jaunes », révèle d’abord le fait que les institutions actuelles ne permettent pas la représentation correcte des citoyens.

Avec des penseurs constitutionalistes comme Sieyès, typique du tout début de la Révolution française, la bourgeoisie se figurait que la constitution devait permettre une représentation de la Nation garantissant un ordre conservateur de la société en « bridant » toute volonté « radicale » du peuple. Il s’agissait pour eux, de créer des conditions empêchant de transformer profondément la société au détriment de la classe dominante. C’est ce qu’ils appelaient (et appellent toujours) une « souveraineté nationale » pour la distinguer de la « souveraineté populaire ». Là, l’imagination n’a pas de borne. Des « citoyens actifs et passifs », on est passé à un vote censitaire puis à des régimes bonapartistes dictatoriaux plébiscitaires, puis à des systèmes d’assemblées élues au suffrage universel mais indirect (comme le Sénat), accompagnées d’assemblées élues au scrutin uninominal majoritaire sur des circonscriptions artificielles, et en plus, pour finir, à des pouvoirs exorbitants attribués à un monarque républicain et à la censure d’organes judiciaires (Conseil constitutionnel), agrémentés de traités internationaux contraignants, sans oublier le frein financier des campagnes électorales …

Certes, le mandat impératif pour toute décision n’est guère possible pour gérer un Etat de plusieurs millions de citoyens. Mais une démocratie réellement représentative doit comporter certaines dispositions obligatoires : pas d’assemblées décisionnelles élus au suffrage indirect et au moins la moitié des représentants de toute assemblée décisionnelle élus obligatoirement à la proportionnelle, et fin du pouvoir de blocage des juges. La place du référendum dans ce fonctionnement démocratique est fondamentale. La ratification (ou refus de ratification) des décisions constitutionnelles ou des traités internationaux par des référendums ne devraient souscrire aucune exception. Et le choix des citoyens de réclamer un référendum pour abolir une loi ou pour en exiger une autre doit être un droit constitutionnel : c’est le Référendum d’Initiative Citoyenne (RIC), demandé par un certain nombre de citoyens, mais pas sur un chiffre dissuasif. On doit peut-être l’accompagner par la signature d’un ou de quelques députés pour garantir la rédaction et éviter ainsi un contrôle bloquant a priori du Conseil d’Etat (mais pas 5 ou 10% des parlementaires comme l’actuel Référendum d’Initiative Partagée, condition très dissuasive). Pour être  valable démocratiquement, tout référendum doit, certes être, précédé d’un débat à l’Assemblée Nationale car la campagne avant le vote n’est pas ainsi menée uniquement par et sur des moyens publicitaires.

Dans ces conditions, tout référendum est une arme de dissuasion massive contre  les agissements de toute oligarchie. Regardez comment ses obligés développent des arguments absurdes et sont sous l’emprise d’une véritable panique à la simple évocation du RIC … D’autant, que selon une ancienne jurisprudence du Conseil Constitutionnel, toujours en vigueur, celui-ci se refuse à toute censure d’une loi votée par référendum !

Ce sont pour ces raisons que nous soutenons tout mouvement et toute démarche ayant pour objectif l’établissement du Référendum d’Initiative Citoyenne.

 

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